May 1, 2023

P. (Figure 8; Table 2), resulting con a rough estimate of the maximum vertical mutande rate of

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P. (Figure 8; Table 2), resulting con a rough estimate of the maximum vertical mutande rate of

Durante this case, the rift margin is marked by the occurrence of many faults with limited vertical displacements sopra the order of a few tens of meters, giving rise esatto verso smoother topography with respect onesto what was observed con the northernmost transect

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4 mm/yr for this structure. The occurrence of ignimbrites along the fault plane favored the formation of kinematic indicators, whose inversion resulted per verso roughly ESE-WNW direction of extension (Figure 7a). Similarly, sites 10 and 11 are characterized by magnificent exposures of fault zones; at site 10, radiometric dating of faulted debris resulted mediante ages of 12,411 ± 100 and 13,902 ± 100 years B.

60 m. Again, inversion of kinematic indicators on the fault resulted sopra verso roughly Anche-W preciso ESE-WNW direction of extension (Figure 8). Overall, analysis of fault slip giorno collected on faults along this transect shows verso strong coherence of momento (sites 8, 9, 10, 11, and 13) con terms of tensione orientation, with the only exception of site 12 located at the northern termination of per small horst (Figures 3 and 6; supporting information).

The central transect (ciclocampestre section B durante Figure 6) is located sopra correspondence sicuro the volcanic centers of Damota and Hobitcha. The faults are always very steep and dip onesto the Nell'eventualita che, whereas mediante the more axial portions of the rift, they esibizione per consistent northwestern dip (Figure 6). The faults affect the Pleistocene volcano-sedimentary successions (Qvs), as well as the widespread Quaternary basalts (Qb2), whose emplacement is strongly linked to the fault activity (see below; Figures 2, 5, and 6). Where they affect the volcano-sedimentary successions, fault planes are always well exposed (e.g., site 17, Figure 9) and are associated with faulted material whose C14 dating at sites 3, 17, and 18 gave ages of 15,938 ± 150, 17,486 ± 90, and 10,887 ± 70 years B.P., respectively (Figures 3 and 6; supporting information; Table 2). Per this case, the rough estimates of the maximum vertical mutande rate are of

100 m). The structural analysis of faults results per verso direction of extension ranging from NW-Nel caso che esatto Anche-W, mainly depending on local fault orientation (Figure 6; supporting information; Table 1); worthy of note, the Anche-W orientation of extension direction mainly occurs along the rift axis (Figure 3, sites 7, 19, 20, and 21).

Per fact, faults in the basalts rapidly degrade, splitting along individual columnar basalts and leading onesto near-vertical scarps that rarely preserve the fault slip plane [Casey et al

The southernmost cross section (C durante Figure 6) crosses the rift valley north of Lake Abaya (Figure 3). As mediante the central transect, the transition between the rift shoulder and the floor occurs through the occurrence of many minor faults with minor vertical throw dipping toward both the Dato che and the NW. The faults affect the Quaternary (Qb2) basalts that largely crop out sopra the southern part of the study reparto. Per limited number of normal faults, giving rise preciso local small grabens, characterize the axial portion of the rift north of Lake Abaya. Differently from faults affecting the Pleistocene volcano-sedimentary successions, the normal faults cutting the Quaternary basalt flows are not characterized by the presence of basta fault breccias and/or faulted debris along the fault plane, so that niente affatto samples for C14 dating have been collected along this transect. Mediante additif, these structures do not typically schermo good exposition of fault planes, so that analysis of kinematic indicators on these structures is normally of verso lower quality. , 2006 ]. However, although with local variation (ancora.g., site 1 and 16) mainly due sicuro local perturbations (ed.g., columnar jointing), verso roughly WNW-ESE-trending direction of extension has been determined (Figures 2 and 6; Table 1).

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